What does Heidegger see as the problem with “modern” forms of technology?

Hobbes argues that in the absence of a sovereign power there can be no injustice or justice, nor right or wrong –that it is the power or might of the sovereign that makes right and justice possible, at least in this world. Clearly, there is something right about this: if we aren’t willing to protect people then talk about what’s right, fair, or just is simply idle and practically meaningless. But, it certainly doesn’t seem right to say that no wrong was done to the native peoples of this continent simply because there existed no power willing to protect them, and the same goes for the situation for any marginalized group that lacks power. Quite the contrary, the very fact that they lack power seems to make their claims just that much more salient. 1) . So, what does Hobbes get right or correct about the nature of justice and morality, and what does he get wrong? Is there no justice or morality without a state or power willing and capable of providing it? Or, is there something natural about morality and justice? Or, is there some third possibility that explains why we think as we do about, say, native peoples? Obviously Hobbes thinks it rational to be part of the social contract independently of whether you or I actually have the freedom to leave or change it (in contrast to Plato). There is of course always the option to rebel — in effect exiting the social contract and re-entering the state of nature — but Hobbes is fairly clear that such a move is, in all cases, irrational and, therefore, unjust precisely because we’re placing ourselves, and at least some others, in a state of war. Now, it’s on the point of war itself that I want to direct you. 2). How might Hobbes justify the right of the sovereign to require you to serve in a war if, as it appears, you are risking your life and potentially placing yourself into something very much like a state of nature? Or, can he justify the sovereign’s demand that you fight? And, if he cannot, then how can the sovereign ever protect you? If he can, how — by what rational means could Hobbes defend the claim that you are required to serve AND place yourself in something that could be very close to a state of nature while also saying that you can never give up your natural right to protect yourself from death or serious injury? As you know, I made a point of observing that all legal systems, including our own, have legal provisions — especially those regarding martial law — that allow the executive to set aside the law, or some portion of it, in cases of an emergency. Hobbes takes this for granted and assumes it’s obvious that the sovereign is the real source of power and legitimacy and not the rule of law, or the people, or anything else for that matter. After all, it’s not at all obvious how the law has the authority to set itself aside or to empower an individual to do just that on grounds that may or may not be shared with the public or justified publicly. Yet, that’s exactly what we have.
3). How, then, can we avoid moving from a democratic system with a rule of law to a dictatorship if dictatorial powers are always contained within our laws? Can we eliminate those laws and still expect to have a functional society in times of crisis? If not, then I ask again — how do we protect ourselves in times of crisis but avoid dictatorship? Explain.
4) . What are the problems inherent in the capitalist mode of production that Marx identified? To what extent do you think those problems can or cannot be solved? Can the crisis of overproduction be managed or solved? Why or why not?
5) Was does Heidegger see as the problem with “modern” forms of technology? What is “enframing” and what does it imply for us? What is it to be “standing reserve” and to what extent do we need to be concerned that we, ourselves, will become just that? To what extent has Heidegger affected or otherwise changed your view of technology and its relation to us?
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