Anthropology 130 Online Research Simulation 1Tarsier Research Project50…

Anthropology 130 Online Research Simulation 1Tarsier Research Project50 points totalInstructionsThis research simulation will take you through a fictional example of genetic inheritance. The textbook and lecture slides on heredity, genetics, biological evolution, and population genetics should have all of the information that you need to successfully complete the assignment. Use Internet resources as a last resort since that information is less controlled.Enter your answers into the Research Simulation 1 Answer Sheet Word document and upload it to Canvas to turn in.Assignment StartCongratulations! You have been accepted into a prestigious research program. You will be joining a team of primatologists who have started to conduct research on a population of tarsiers living on an island in the Philippines. (Tarsiers are hand-sized primates who share a distant common ancestor with humans but evolved in their own way to survive in forests). The researchers believe that tarsier fur color is strongly influenced by their genes, so they plan to genetically test tarsiers of different colors to see what their genotypes are like.Since you’re the newest member of the research team, the primatologists have given you the work of of 111{ Caption: A tarsier. }preparing the data that they have collected to present to The National Science Foundation. At least you get to work in the Philippines!Part OneThe international airport is bustling with activity as you wait for your flight to the Philippines. Announcements in many languages ring out over the speakers. You make a small game of trying to identify the languages being spoken. Surprisingly, you hear a young voice next to you:“Hi are you a scientist?”A child full of curiosity has climbed into the seat next to yours while you were distracted. You reply to the child that you are indeed a scientist. The child looks up at your with beaming eyes. “I have a question. In school, we learn about the scientis- scientific method, but I didn’t understand something. Could you tell me the difference between a hyp- hypo- hypothemesis and a theory?” of 211{ Your new workplace (not really). }1.Explain to the child the difference between a hypothesis and a theory in your own way, based on the book and lecture. Use at least one sentence. (1 point)2.The child has you attention for now. Continue by explaining how the process of scientific research improves our knowledge over time while bad data and theories are discarded. (1 point)Satisfied, the child climbs off the seat and wanders away. Soon, the gate opens and you board the plane to your research adventure.Part TwoBy the time you are able to join the team in the Philippines, the researchers have already taken genetic samples of wild tarsiers. Analyzing their DNA, scientists have isolated a few genotypes, or the genetic makeup, or a few individuals. The genotypes have been given names following the standard convention of using capital and lowercase letters to represent different alleles in a gene.For each of the following four genotypes, indicate in the answer sheet whether it is heterozygous, homozygous dominant, or homozygous recessive: (1 point total)3.Hh4.MM5.ff of 3116.Make up your own heterozygous genotype, using a letter of your choice (1 point).Part ThreeThe scientists noticed that the tarsiers of this particular island came in two varieties of fur color: brown and silver. These colors are determined by the Fur gene, which has two possible alleles. Comparing the fur phenotype with the genotype, they found that the uppercase ‘F’ allele codes for brown fur while the lowercase ‘f’ allele codes for silver fur.Based on this information, would the fur color of tarsiers with the following genotype be brown or silver? (1 point total). of 411{ Caption: Photoshopped renditions of the silver and brown tarsiers for this assignment. Real tarsiers do have differences in fur color, though!}7.Ff  8.ff   9.FFPart FourContinuing their research, the primatologists temporarily capture a few tarsiers to observe over a few days. Two of the captive tarsiers, one male and one female, are very fond of each other. Looking at their DNA, scientists found that one has the genotype FF for the fur color gene and the other tarsier has ff as its genotype. One of your fellow researchers, Jherry,  is filling out a Punnett square to diagram the possible genotypes of any offspring of this tarsier pair. He shows you his template:Jherry is eager to demonstrate what he learned when he took ANTH 101 last semester: “You see, each parent’s genotype is given in the gray squares. With this information, we just move the alleles for Parent 1 across each row and drop the alleles for Parent 2 down each column to see how these alleles would combine in their offspring. For this pairing…” of 511Parent 2FFParent 1ffNot to be outdone, you jump in to help Jherry figure out his Punnett square.10.What would be each offspring genotype in the four white blanks in the Punnett square? In the answer sheet write the genotype derived from the parents in each white square. (1 point)11.What would be the fur color of all of these offspring, and why? Explain your reasoning with at least a full sentence. (1 points)One of the researchers, Lhindsay, comes back excitedly from the forest: “The two parent tarsiers had a baby!” Being a top tarsier researcher, she already has a sample of the newborn’s DNA to test. The results show that the offspring with the genotype Ff. Lhindsay’s mind reels from the possibilities of this young tarsier. “What if the Ff baby grows up and mates with anotherFf tarsier?! What types of offspring are possible?” You work to answer Lhindsay’s question by making another Punnett square. You start with the parents’ separated alleles in the gray squares and then work to fill in the four white squares with the offspring’s genotypes: of 611Parent 2Parent 112.What would be in each of the white squares in the answer sheet showing the possible genotypes of the grandchildren if the baby Ff tarsier grew up and mated with another Fftarsier? (1 points)13.For each of the genotypes from question #12, what would be the resulting phenotype or actual fur color? Fill in each the correct phenotype for each white square in the Punnett Square with either the word ‘brown’ or ‘silver’ based on the genotype from #12. (1 points)14.Based on your results, which phenotype (brown or silver) would be more likely to appear in the grandchildren? Explain your reasoning in at least a complete sentence, explaining what you see in your previous answer. (2 points)“Thank you!” Lhindsay exclaims. She runs off to tell Jherry and the other researchers the good news, along with your additional information.Part FiveThe researchers are grateful that you have gotten this work done for them so that they can keep conducting fieldwork in the forest. One day, the researchers find a family of tarsiers with red fur! A new allele in the fur color gene must have appeared due to a change in the DNA of one of the tarsiers. This new allele then got passed to the next generation. Lindsay is very excited by this new discovery: “The red fur allele must have been created the… oh, what is the force of evolution that is the only source of new alleles?”15.Help out Lhindsay: what is the force of biological evolution that is the only source of new alleles? (1 points) of 711Observations of the red fur tarsiers show thatthey blend in better with the reddish brown tree trunks in the environment compared to both the brown and silver fur tarsiers. This means that the red fur tarsiers are less likely to be caught and eaten by the tarsier-eating hawks that patrol the forest. 16.Given the above pattern over many generations, would the red fur tarsiers be more or less common compared to the brown and silver tarsiers? (1 point)You start documenting these results for the team, but you need to recall the best vocabulary term to describe what is going on.17.The change in fur color trends of the tarsier population, due to each color affecting reproductive success differently, is an example of which force of evolution? (2 points)18.You know that there are tarsiers living on the other side of the river where you found the red fur tarsiers. Due to the rapid current of the river, the tarsiers on one side rarely meet the tarsiers on the other. Is this an example of high or low gene flow between these two groups? (1 point) of 811{ Caption: The newly discovered red tarsier (still fictional for this assignment!). }Part SixAfter filling in the details of your report, you join the research team to eat dinner and discuss the findings under the big research tent. Lhindsay and Jherry thank you for being so helpful. The primary investigator of this team, the P.I., strolls up to you and hands you a celebratory lumpia (spring roll). “Excellent work on the tarsier fur colors. The red fur tarsiers will really add to what we know about this branch of primates, and all primates in general. We still don’t know if the new red fur allele is dominant or recessive. If it is recessive, like the f allele, then only F will be dominant for this gene, overriding the other alleles. If it turns out that the red fur allele is as dominant as the brown fur allele… what is the word for that situation?”19.Impress the P.I.: what is the term for a gene where multiple alleles for a gene are dominant? (1 point)20.If the red fur allele is also dominant, what could a tarsier look like if it had both the red allele and the brown allele? (1 point)“There is a chance that the fur gene affects more than just the fur color: eye color may be affected as well! In that case, this one gene affects multiple traits.”21.What is the term for a gene that affects more than one trait? (1 point)“There are so many complications to genetics beyond what we just went over. I know that you have read the book Essentials of Physical Anthropology by Clark Spencer Larsen. He’s a great professor! Do you recall what the book said about regulatory and structural genes?” of 91122.What is the definition of a regulatory gene? Use a complete sentence and rephrase the definition from what the book says. (1 point)23.What is the definition of a structural gene? Use a complete sentence and rephrase the definition from what the book says. (1 point)24.What is the name for the type of gene found in many different animals that controls the development of body parts? (1 point)Your Primary Investigator nods in contentment. “It’s been great chatting with you. I’m very excited about analyzing these data and adding on to our scientific knowledge. To be honest, I’m a little competitive. Another research team may discover the same things about tarsiers and publish their discovery first. It’s like when Charles Darwin was almost too late in publishing his work on natural selection because another researcher was following the same clues to the same theory. Now, Darwin is the famous name for natural selection, while the other guy is less well known. In fact, what was his name? Maybe you read an article about it.”25.Who was the researcher who almost announced his discovery of natural selection before Charles Darwin did it? (1 point)Part SevenThe next day, you stop by the nearby town of Corella to visit an Internet café and see what is going on with social media. You received some messages from friends asking about what you did recently in your research. of 101126.Write a short status message of around 150 words describing what you did and learned while studying tarsiers as if you were really there. College-level writing is not required! Have fun with it. (2 points)ConclusionThe eventful field season concluded, you return home from the Philippines to turn in your answer sheet. The researchers continue their work on finding more about tarsiers. They can now test the new hypothesis that the red fur will become more common in the future. By careful observation of the environment, scientists can make and test hypotheses about how the tarsier genotype and phenotype are interrelated. This adds a little bit of new information to the existing scientific knowledge. We will learn more about tarsiers later in the course!Be sure to have answered every question in the answer sheet before submitting it on Canvas. of 1111Caption: The public market in Corella (it’s a real town!).